Every year, hundreds of billions of tons of organic biomass are formed on Earth - the waste products of living organisms. Biomass produces 10 times more energy than all the inhabitants of the Earth need today. Biomass ranks 5th in the list of renewable energy sources - after solar, wind, water and geothermal energy.
Biomass sources are:
- fallen leaves and peat;
- wood and wood waste;
- human waste;
- industrial activity waste;
- special plants and crops
Biomass Processing Methods
The conversion of biomass into fuel or thermal energy is carried out in five main ways:
- Incineration is the easiest and most popular way to obtain cheap energy from dry organic waste. During the incineration of waste, steam is generated in the boiler, the steam rotates the turbine, and that, in turn, moves the rotor of the generator that produces electricity. This method has a minus - the boiler becomes clogged with ash and soot, and production costs increase. Therefore, not all types of organic waste are used in direct combustion.
- Gasification is the combustion of solid biofuels with minimal access to oxygen. The result of such processing is a mixture of gases (nitrogen, methane, hydrogen, carbon dioxide) used to rotate a gas turbine. The main advantage of the technology is the obtained pure fuel, which does not pollute the environment. Methane is being used as a fossil natural gas now, hydrogen will be used for the same purposes in the foreseeable future.
- Pyrolysis is the processing of biomass into fuel by heating with the removal of volatile compounds. It turns out the charcoal familiar to the user, which is several times more energy-intensive and easy to transport material. Coal is useful for heating housing stock, industrial processes. Modern methods involve the use of volatile substances formed during pyrolysis for the synthesis of methane and methanol. Rapid pyrolysis technology makes it possible to obtain bio-oil, an efficient fuel that is easy to store and transport. Biofuel for cars is cheaper than fossil oil, safer for the environment; it is suitable for all engines and increases their life. Another substance that can be obtained by pyrolysis is phenolic oil, used for the manufacture of plastics, isopene, wood glue.
- Anaerobic fermentation is the treatment of waste with the help of anaerobic bacteria, which feed on inanimate organic matter (sewage, manure). By consuming it in special cooking tanks, bacteria produce hydrogen and methane. The resulting gas is collected to be used to generate electricity. This method allows you to recover 2/3 of the fuel from biomass.
- Fermentation is the use of yeast-type microorganisms to produce fuel (ethanol and other hydrocarbons). The method makes it possible to use almost all existing variations of household waste - from grain husks and paper waste to sugar cane and wood.
When choosing the most suitable processing option, consider a number of nuances - from the cost of the processing plant itself to its productivity and ability to work with different materials. The pyrolysis model is a universal option for obtaining energy from organic waste.
Biomass preprocessing with industrial shredders
Before processing biomass, we need to homogenize it to improve the efficiency of subsequent processing and reduce pollution and waste.
The industrial crusher or shredder is one of the most ideal equipment for the pretreatment of biomass materials. It has the following advantages:
- Small footprint enables installation in crowded workshops
- Low-speed equipment, stable operation, low failure rate
- Low wear, no need to change blades frequently
The industrial shredder is the main component of the fuel pretreatment system used in many biomass power plants.
GEP ECOTECH offers industrial shredder & shredding system for your biomass preprocessing task for any applications.
Contact us for detail.